Kingdom of Cambodia

Nation Religion King



Ministry of

Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries


Progress Report


Natural Resources Management


The Sixth Consultative Meeting with Donor




Phnom Penh, June 2002


Progress Report

“Natural Resources Management”

For the Sixth Consultative Group Meeting with Donor

Phnom Penh, June 2002


I. Introduction

In accordance with the National Economic Development Policy Platform of the Royal Government of Cambodia (RGC), Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), with Department of Forestry and Wildlife (DFW) and department of Fisheries as executive agencies, have undertaken considerable efforts and carried out important activities in the framework of the forestry and fisheries reform process for archiving the objective of sustainable natural resources management. Moreover, the second mandate of RGC, under the strong and wise leadership of Samdech Prime Minister Hun Sen. has taken strict measures to eliminating the anarchy in the forestry/wildlife and fisheries sectors. These measures were performed thoroughly; with the support and participation of all levels of the Royal Armed Forces, Polices, Local Authorities, relevant institutional and with the support of the international community, and obtained a great deal achievement.

Within the past 12 months, after the fifth of Consultative Group Meeting in Tokyo, June 2001, the RGC, MAFF have been mainly concerned with implementing significant activities such as: developing legal basis and corresponding regulations dealing with forestry/wildlife and fisheries Sectors, strengthening and establishment of community forestry and community fisheries, implementation of reform program on forest concession and fishing lot management, monitoring, reporting and eliminatin2 forest crimes and illegal activities on fisheries sector, rehabilitation and development of forest/wildlife and fisheries resources received good results.

II. Activities and Achievements

A- Forestry Sector

A.1 Law and Regulation Concerning Forestry Sector


- Forestry Law

The draft of forestry law was adopted by the plenary session of the Council of Ministers on 20 July 2001. It contains 18 chapters and 109 articles. The draft of the law was officially submitted to the National Assembly through the letter No 179 dated 17 August 2001. Subsequently, the Permanent Committee of National Assembly submitted the draft to the committee of Economic, Planning, Agriculture Investment, Rural Development and Environment (third committee) of National Assembly for ratification. The third committee finished their ratification on 24 April 2002. The draft has put on the 6th agenda of the 8th plenary session of the National Assembly, which began 13 May 2002.

- Wildlife Law

With financial support from the United Kingdom Embassy and with technical assistance from WCF, the draft of Wildlife Law was prepared, and launched for public consultation at the national level one time on 18 may 2001. Presently, the draft is undergoing a review process after receiving recommendations from concerned institutions. MAFF expects that this draft will be submitted to Council of Ministers in early 2003.

- Statement of National Forest Policy

Currently. DFW has been charged to function as the Secretariat of the “National Committee to manage and Execute Forest Management Policy”. In its work the secretariat has collaborated effectively and with GTZ (Cambodia-German Forestry Project) drafted a National Forest Policy Statement with main objective of establishing the framework of the future of national forestry policy in Cambodia.

The major elements of the draft of National Forestry Statement are stated bellow:

» The RGC commits itself to the conservation and sustainable management of forest resources acknowledging the multiple perceptions related to interest and objective of Cambodia Society and other groups of local, national and region levels. Due to the significance of national forestry resources, the RGC has focused on:

  • The conservation and the sustainable management of natural resources in order to ensure a maximum participation in economic development of the country.

  • Within the conservation and sustainable forest management schemes a maximum involvement of the private sector and participation of the local community shall be achieved in order to warrant traditional rights food security,

  • A wide range of coordinated multi-stakeholder processes shall be implemented enabling the harmonization of the different perceptions, interest and objectives of the various forest interest groups at all levels.

» The draft of national forest policy statement contains four major objectives:

  1. Forest resource conservation such as natural forest resource protection in order to secure the function and benefits of biodiversity and watershed management with a maximum participation of the local community.

  2. Good governance (to ensure a transparency, public participation, providing commons, equalization of benefit, institutional development, capacity building for all levels, decentralization and establishing forestry administration).

  3. Economic development (Optimize the socio- economic contribution of forestry, promote forest plantation development and wood processing),

  4. Poverty Reduction (condition of obtaining benefit from natural forest resources, recognize the traditional right and implementation of forest community),

This draft of the national forest policy statement has been delivered to all concerned institutions for hearing their opinion and for providing recommendations. The Secretariat of the National Committee to Manage and Execute Forest Management Policy will be making an assessment of all comments and recommendations for eventual consideration.


Other supportive legal measures

RGC has been active in a number of fields where initiation of legal guidelines was urgent. Some of the more important measures are listed as follows:

» Sub-decree on community forestry

The Sub-Decree on community forestry is the result of an extraordinary process of joint efforts of projects, NGO’s, government institutions with participation of many people living in rural areas in drafting, reviewing and reconciling many interests and perceptions of a considerable number of stakeholders. This would not have been possible without the agreement on cooperation and support and establishment of a Task Force comprising, among others:

   - Cambodian-German Forestry Project (CGFP)
   - Concern Worldwide and
   - Sustainable Management of Resources Project (SMRP) funded by Germany
   - The World Bank.

This Task Force established with the objective to re-draft a community forestry sub-decree had been formally established in June 2001. To obtain a solid basis of knowledge on needs and expectations the Task Force conducted participatory consultations in 14 provinces, organized 15 workshops with local communities, national and international organizations as well as public consultation and hearings with concerned institutions on 5 occasions in DFW. The draft of the Community Forestry Sub-Decree is under discussion within MAFF who are expected to submit the Sub-Decree to the Council of Ministers soon.

» Draft of sub-decree on forest protection for conservation of wildlife and gene resources concerns an area in Mondul Kiri and Preah Vihear Provinces covering 661,432 ha, of which 471,405 ha are situated in Mondul Kiri and 190,027 ha in Preah Vihear. This Sub-Decree has been submitted to the Inter-Ministerial Meeting on 13 May 2002 and will be submitted to the plenary session of the Council of Ministers soon.

» A Draft of sub-decree on forest protection for conservation of watershed and bio-diversity of the Central Cardamom is still discussing within MAFF, but will submitted to the Council of Ministers soon.

» Declaration (Prokas) No 5721-dated 13 December 2001, on suspension of forest concession logging activities had been issued by MAFF in order to strengthen implementation of this measure. In addition, MAFF issued a further declaration (Prokas) No 155 dated 21 May 2002 on suspension of concession log transportation.

» RGC issued Decree No 05, dated 30 August 2001, and Decree No 527, dated 28 December 2001, regulating the maximum weight of loaded forest products in order to reduce destruction and costs of maintaining infrastructure such as roads and bridges. Overloaded log trucks have been causing severe damage on Cambodian roads and bridges. Violators of these decrees must repair damages to roads and bridges, and could be subject to legal proceedings, including closedown of their factories or even termination of their concession contracts.

A.2 Forest Concession Management

There are currently 15 (fifteen) forest concessions holding an investment agreement, which still has validity. All of these are in the process of preparing new forest concession management plan and will be negotiating new forest concession investment agreements.


» Cancellation of investment agreement, logging license and forest concession harvesting contracts:

Since 1999 up to present, the RGC has cancelled 13 of investment agreements, logging license and forest concession harvesting contracts covering a total area 2.5 million hectares. Recently, RGC has cancelled investment agreement, logging license and forest concession harvesting contracts from two companies of the above group of 13 concerning Hero Taiwan, which has a forest concession in Rattanak Kiri province covering an area 60,150 hectares and Vuthy Peanex, which holds forest concession in Koh Kong province with total area 63,050 hectares through letter No 27 dated 08 May 2002, these forest areas that extracted from the two companies keep as permanent forest estate.

  » Identification of village and agricultural land within forest concession area

In order to reduce conflict of interest between local communities and concessionaires, in October 2001, the MAFF designated a commission to identify village and agricultural land under the present cultivation within forest concession areas. The outcome from this effort in forest land covering 751,968 ha having been excluded from concession land.


» Forest Concession Management

In order to ensure of a sustainable forest and wildlife resources in forest concession, all concessionaires agreed to prepare sustainable forest management plans consistent with international standards. DFW, the CTIA representative, and the Donor representative agreed that the dateline for submitting forest management plans would be set to be 30 September 2001. Regarding technical implementation issues, there were 16 concessionaires, which their field implementation plan had been approved in September 2001. Based on this reason, the last dateline, which were accepted by all parties, and provide the time for concessionaires to submit management plan until September 2002. However, only nine forest concessions companies out of fifteen currently had submitted forest concession management plans to DFW for reviewing and approval.

Reviewing is led implement by working group, Dr. Dennis J. Cengel, project advisor of Forest Concession Management and Control Pilot, Mr. Yann Pretrucci, team leader of representative of Forest Resource Management (FMR) consultant firm, which is currently carrying out in the Forest Concession Management and Control Pilot project, with the World Bank loan of US$ 5 million. Currently, the working group has prepared a criteria and indicator for evaluate the strategy of forest concession management plan, which submitted by concessionaires. Moreover, the working group is also verifying and evaluating the management plan in the field, which lead by expert of FRM consultant firm.

  » Negotiation of forest concession agreements
Parties concerned had agreed that negotiations of forest concession agreements should be completed by the end of September 2002. In the negotiation process, concessionaires basically agreed on technical points, but did no agree to keep the royalty rate unchanged. They were opposed to the fact that that RGC kept the same royalty rate of US$54 /m3 Consequently concessionaires requested RGC to reduce the royalty rate and to grant export tax exemption on forest products and import tax exemption on working materials used in forest concessions.
  » Forest concession harvesting activities
From January 01, 2002, MAFF (DFW) has suspended to issue cutting permit to all concessionaires, and closed down all logging coupes of the year 2001 and stop all logging activities since 31 December 2001 until concessionaires obtained the approval on new forest concession management plan consistent with legal and technical requirements of sustainable forest management.
  » Controlling and monitoring log traffic

With the definite intention to improving log-monitoring capabilities, it requires to use Bare Code in combination with the existing system for log traffic monitoring. Application of bare code tags will commence in September 2002. Bare Code firm tags will be attached to the logs and together with an electronic encoder connected with computer for tracking and destination of logs.

The Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries is very keen to use Bare Code as a highly reliable technological system. It will require thorough training of monitoring teams but will then contribute to more efficient monitoring activities. Therefore, we expect assistance and support from donors, especially World Bank for successful application of this technology. Mr. Bill Magrath, World Bank representative, committed by himself to provide the technical report for using bar-coded log tagging as prepared by SGS two weeks after the Workshop and Tradeshow “Verifying Wood Sources and Legal Compliance” This exhibition had been organized in the SUN WAY Hotel, Phnom Penh on 21 March 2002. However, MAFF (DFW) has not yet received this report for study and evaluation. MAFF (DFW) is committed to using this Bare Code when inception report, equipment and training of staff have been made available.

A.3 Forest Crime Monitoring and Reporting Project


» In the early year 2001, project operations has met some problems caused by lack of funding for supporting its operation for several months (March to October 2001). However, the project staffs as well as field staff were able to continue their operation even when they encountered any obstacles. They manage to continue investigate and eliminate forest crime in time manner.

» After signing the Reporting Protocol for Reporting Forest Crime in July 2001 between the various project components and donors countries (Denmark), MAFF (DFW) had been taken actions to improve relationship among project partners, especially with Global Witness. Moreover, MAFF was involved in the project amendment and signed by three parties on this document, i.e., representatives of RGC, UNDP and FAO, in order to obtain additional financial support for the operation of the Forest Crime Monitoring and Reporting Project granted by DFID of the United Kingdom.

» To strengthen the efficiency of project operation and in order to solve the problems that occurred, MAFF (DFW) has implemented the following measures:

  • In June, DFW restructured the Forest Crime Monitoring Unit due to the need to maintain sustainability of the project since it operated without the role of a CTA for several months. At this time, DFW has approved another reorganization of the structure of the Forest Crime Monitoring and Reporting Project consistent with the Project Amendment in order to avoid future confusions.

  • In an effort to improve Project effectiveness and coordination, and to increase information exchange, a Working Group was been established and has the meetings every week on Friday. It comprises representatives from the DFW, as well as the Ministry of Environment, the Focal Point Coordinator, representatives from Global Witness, the CTA of the Forest Crime Monitoring and Reporting Project, and the Project Advisor from the World Bank LIL.

» In March 2002, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has collaborated with Ministry of Environment, FAO and UNDP organized the Second Annual Workshop on ‘tStrengthening Forest Crime Monitoring and Reporting” was held on 27 and 28 March 2002, at the Sunway Hotel, Phnom Penh. The objectives of the workshop were defined as follows:

  • Re-evaluating and assessing project implementation.

  • Determining the strategy and activities for future operation in order to contribute substantially to sustainable forest management.

  • Adopting the project work plan.Strengthening cooperation with institutions concerned,

  • Implementing the project objectives with high efficiency and using the project budget and human resource with appropriate efficiency.

  • Continuing to strengthen through training the capabilities of project staffs at district, provincial and national levels,

» In the past as well as today, MAFF (DFW) has always considered Global Witness as a partner in the implementation of the Forest Crime Monitoring and Reporting Project. The Independent Monitor is an essential element of the monitoring process and contributes to the objective of strengthening implementation of RGC’ Forest Policy. However, Global witness was not interested in verification and did not provide any assistance to suppress forest crime and arrest offenders. For improving the working relationship and the partnership, since October 2001 MAFF (DFW) offered Global Witness a working place within DFW in order to facilitate cooperation and sharing of information. For unknown reasons Global Witness never accepted this offer and never came working at DFW. Moreover, as mentioned above, DFW had organized meetings every Friday. However, Global Witness often disturbed the meeting. In particular, in February 2002, Global Witness was absent even though they had been expressly invited to attend. Recently, Global Witness apologized and came back to participate in the meetings.

However, during all time that we have been inviting Global Witness to verify information they have never given any comment. But outside they always talked negatively about the Government of Cambodia. In a particular case, H.E. SUM MANIT, Chief of the Focal Point of the Council of Ministers mentioned in the closing ceremony of the Second Annual Workshop on the 28 March 2002 at Sunway that in mid 2001 H.E. attended the workshop on “Anti corruption” held in Prague, Czech Republic. On that occasion Global Witness again accused the Cambodian Government by showing the old photographs of forest illegal activities and alleged” corruption from the top to the low level”. That caused considerable surprise and doubts in the international community about the real situation in Cambodia.

» On 30 March 2002, Global Witness conducted an aerial survey on the GAT International Concession in Kompong Thom Province. They were sure to have detected and seen illegal logging over but did not provide the information to DFW for taking action, prevention and suppression. Four weeks later the information was publicly released by the Cambodia Daily volume 23 issues 73, dated 26 April 2002. They reported on illegal logging and that Global Witness had found 119 stumps in Coup 4 of GAT International concession, Kampong Thom. Until 24 April 2002. Global Witness called one staff of the project to joint with them to investigate forest crime without mentioning this crime case. Then on Monday, 29 April 2002, Global Witness reports these facts to DFW, claiming DFW was responsible that those logs had been illegally removes and that only the stumps remained. It must be stated that such activities by Global Witness clearly deviate from the Reporting Protocol, which Global Witness signed with the RGC on 05 June 2001.

After receiving this information, DFW dispatched a fact-finding team to conduct detailed investigations. They counted 430 stumps in the GAT International Concession, but did not discover any logs still remaining over there. Currently, DFW is continuing the investigation to arrest the offenders for punishment and for taking action against the concessionaire in accordance with legal procedure, if the concessionaire had been involved.

» In this case RGC decided as follows:

  • Temporary suspension of forest harvesting activity of GAT International, Kampong Thom until the investigation has been completed.

  • Warning and a fine levied against GAT International Company for tolerating illegal activities within their concession.

  • Replacement of the Kampong Thom forestry officials in charge of supervision in the concession area of GAT International Company.

Subsequently, the following action was taken by MAFF/DFW:

  • All forestry activity of GAT International Company was suspended,

  • A stern warning was written to GAT International company, because of lack of control of the concession area;

  • The Baksnar forestry officers in Kompong Thom responsible for the control of concession in the area concerned was assigned to a different job;

  • DFW has sent the necessary documents concerning this case to the Kompong Thom Court for prosecution.

» In May of this year, on the newspaper has published information on mass man attack Ms Eva Galabru, Global Witness coordinator. This case, the RGC has paying high attention and encourage professional competent to investigate offenders and punish them in accordance with legal procedure.

» Since 1999 to April 2002 Collected forest crime information and classified all of those information in by case type into the case tracking system amounts to 2,231 cases (from 01-01-1999 to 30-4-2002). Among them, 169 cases (7.5%) reported by Global Witness. According to investigation, verification and suppression in the field, among the 169 cases is that 103 cases (61%) were old information, 49 cases (29%) were not forest crime activities and 17 cases (10%) were actual violations.

» On 20 May 2002, the National Committee to Manage and Execute Forest Management Policy organized a meeting at the Council for Development Cambodia, to which were invited concerned institutions, donors and Global Witness to discuss the Review of the process of Implementation of the Forest Management Policy.

» Summarizing all the facts presented so far it is fair to conclude that from January 2001 to April 2002, MAFF has made considerable progress and in eliminating anarchic activities in the forestry sector (See annex 1).

A.4 Forest Rehabilitation

Rehabilitation of logged-over forestland and reforestation of degraded shrub lands with the participation of local people is one of the biggest and most difficult challenges facing the DFW at present and very likely far into far into the future. Because of the high dependence of rural people on fuel wood, non-timber forest products but also for ecological and hydrological reasons of soil protection, erosion control and water storage, DFW is committed to maintaining a sufficiently large, productive, ecologically sound and sustainable managed forest area.

  » Reforestation on degraded forest land

Every year DFW is engaged in reforestation activities mostly in cooperation with provincial, district and community authorities. DFW produces seedlings and assists with land preparation. However, due to serious constraints relating to nursery and transportation capacities as well as lack of manpower and funding the rate of reforestation is totally insufficient in comparison to the rate of forest degradation. Total achievement of reforestation by the DFW and provincials planting stations are 850 ha.

On 20 February 2001, MAFF in collaboration with JICA organized a workshop on “Strategies for Forest Rehabilitation in Cambodia “. The objective of this workshop was to explore possibilities and constraints in rehabilitating the areas under deforestation. JICA is continuing to collaborate with the MAFF/DFW on a Technical Cooperation Project for a period of 3 years starting from 16 December 2001 onward. The objectives of the project are to strengthen the capacity of the institution and staff of DFW in order to effectively implement forest administration and to upgrade technical procedures necessary for reforestation and transfer of knowledge to each target group. Based on several studies made by JICA, DFW and JICA agreed on the following two requirements:

  • The DFW should strengthen its institution and staff on forestry administration including coordination and monitoring of various projects supported by other donors.

  • The DFW should apply a necessary technology to rehabilitate and to manage forest resources through community forestry. This technology should be transferred to relevant parties such as DFW’s staff, Provincial forestry staff and local people.

In order to achieve these requirements, JICA has actively promoted this technical cooperation, invested in human resources development and provided the equipment necessary for implementation activities in conjunction with DFW. JICA is funding the construction of a training center, providing technical advisors (a CTA, a training consultant, and a coordinator), and a number of short-term experts, as well as equipment for operation of this center, e.g., computers, generator, and vehicles etc.


» People’s participation in tree planting

People’s participation in tree planting is organized every year under the national Arbor Day, in conjunction with religious ceremonies, school campaigns, government institutions, and private sector activities. Two million seedlings of indigenous species such as Hopea. Dipterocarps, Dalbergia, fruit trees, Acacia, which were raised in nurseries of DFW, provincial offices, and Samdech Hun Sen Nursery, are planted every year.

The JICA is also provided financial support to 4 tree planting stations of MAFF to produce 120,000 seedlings for donation to people.

» Community forestry

Development of community forestry methods suitable for Cambodian conditions was initiated already in 1992. At present there exist 124 community forestry projects which have been established with the support of national and international NGOs in 15 provinces, 41 districts, 70 communes, and 225 villages.

The MAFF (DFW) have been actively involved in the development of community forestry. Progress was substantial due to the active and constructive engagement of NGOs and the collaboration of various organizations, and donor agencies as follows:

  • With the technical and financial support from GTZ, MRC-GTZ, WB, and Concern Worldwide, participatory workshops, DFW, supported by a number of experts have drafted the Sub-Decree on Community Forestry. This Sub-Decree was submitted to MAFF for review and pass to Council of Ministers.

  • Collaborate with the Natural Resources Management Project of WWF with participation by local communities (CBNRM) that is supported by IDRC/CDRI, Oxfam America, and RECOFTC. The objective of this cooperation is to search for information and compile the report with participation from local community in a number of provinces.

  • Collaborate with WFP in order to produce seedling for people and to protect seed forest.

  • Collaborate with Concern Worldwide with support from DANIDA with the objective of promoting and applying community forestry in Kompong Chnang and Pursat Provinces.

  • Collaborate with Community Forestry Research Project (CFRP) with support from IDRC/RECOFTC in conducting research and coordinate the possibility of implementing community forestry in Kampot, Koh Kong, and Kratie Provinces.

  • Establish databank and information system for community forest management in Cambodia with support from SMRP-MRC/GTZ project.

  • With support from ITTO, MAFF/DFW is conducting a socio­economic study in Angkor Chey district, Kam Pot Province, in order to collect data for pre-project proposal preparation on community forestry.

The MAFF/DFW in collaboration with the Cambodian-German Forestry Project supported by GTZ, achieved as following:

  • Created an internal working group on National Forest Policy (NFP). The working group is drafting and distributing the National Forest Policy Statement for comments by relevant stakeholders.

  • Encouraged the implementation of NFP to be consistent with IPF, which MAFF/DFW may submit to and communicate with UNFF.

  • Undertake analysis of the new proposed forestry administration, identification of mandate and responsibilities for future actions.

  • Provide financial support for DFW staff to join meeting and training workshop relating to forestry sector.

  • Provide support for 10 staff of DFW to study towards MBA degree.

  • Initiate liaison and cooperation on forestry matters between higher-level forestry institutions of Cambodia, Germany and Laos.

  • Collect and analyze community forestry issues within Cambodia and the neighboring countries for the development of extension forestry strategies in Cambodia.

  • Coordinate, establish, and implement capacity building and forest extension activities in Kampong Speu province toward forestry community development on degraded forestland.

  • Provide financial support for developing and printing forestry extension material to be distributed at Arbor Day.

» Forest seed and genetic conservation

The MAFF (DFW) is implementing the Cambodian Forest Tree Seed Project with technical and financial support from the Government of Denmark through DANIDA. Objective of this project is to strengthen the capacity of the DFW in the field of forest seed collection, storage and use for a better quality especially for local species and conservation of forest tree gene resources. The main activities are arranging a management structure on forest tree seed training and extension, to identify a strategy of forest gene conservation, and establishing a forest seed lab for purpose of research on individual species. At its first stage, an area of 12.5 ha of forestland located in PALPOL commune, THBENG MEAN CHEY district, PREAH VIHEAR province, has been identified as forest seed and gene conservation orchard for a selected species of NEANG NUON. In addition to that, another area of 117 ha of forest land located in TUMREING commune, SANDAN district, Kompong Thom Province, in COLEXIM concession company, has been declared by MAFF for forest seed and gene conservation orchard for DAUN CHEM, KRA KOH, CHHEU TEAL, PHDEAK. LUMBOR, and CHOR CHONG.

A.5 Forest Resources Conservation

MAFF/DFW has proposed 3 protected forests are to be adopted under the Sub-Decree of:

  • Protection Forest for Conservation of Wildlife and Gene Resource in MUNDUL KIRI province, 429, 438 ha.
  • Protection Forest for Conservation of Wildlife and Gene Resources in PREAH VIHEAR province, 190,027 ha.
  • Protection Forest for Conservation of Watershed and Bio-Diversity of the Central Cardamom Range, 401,313 ha.
The Sub-decrees for these tree protected forests have been adopted by Inter-ministerial Meeting, and subsequently by the Plenary Session of Council of Ministers. The protected forests will contribute to local development.

With the support from WCS, a study on Bio-Diversity Conservation has been initiated on 306,000 ha within SL. International Concession, Mondul Kiri and Kratie Provinces.

  » Actions and field survey on Bio-Diversity:
  • DFW-Community-based Tiger Conservation Project is an ongoing process in the Northern, Northeast, and Southwest regions of Cambodia.
  • DFW-FFI Cambodia Asia Elephant Conservation Project is at the planning stage preparing for the third quarter of 2002 as follows:
  1. DFW-FFI Cambodia Asia Elephant Conservation Project along the border Cambodia-Vietnam (Mondul Kiri and Rotanakiri Provinces) using Radio Collar and Satellite Tracking and GIS systems.

  2. DFW-FFI Project Managed Elephant Range in Southwest Cambodia. Elephant Conflict Mitigation.

  • DFW-ICF, Sarus Crane Conservation Project. Extension has been actively undertaken in the region of TRAPEANG THMAR Reservoir for the benefit of the local community while cranes have been conserved and ANG TRAPEANG THMAR has been protected.

  • DFW-WCS Bio-Diversity Conservation Project has been started since January 2002. The following activities will be undertaken:

  1. Bio-diversity Conservation Project in Mondul Kiri and Kratie Provinces.

  2. An action plan is being prepared Bio-diversity Conservation Project in the northern region of Cambodia.

  • DFW-ITTO Transboundary Biodiversity Conservation Project. A Sub-Decree has been drafted to set aside the Northeast forest region as Wildlife and Gene Resource Conservation Project (Mondul Kiri). An action plan for the implementation of Cambodian-Vietnam border for Bio-diversity Conservation in 2002 has been prepared.

  • DFW-FFI Siamese Crocodile Conservation Project has finished its first stage, a study on the crocodile situation. Action plan for Conservation of Siamese Crocodile in Central Cardamom Range is being prepared and is ready for implementation at the end of this year. The result of the study shows that the Cardamom range is the only place in the world, which remains with the highest crocodile population living in the wild.

  • DFW-FFI Gibbon Conservation Survey Project has completely finished its first phase of study in some of the main regions of Cambodia. Conservation plan is being prepared for future action.

  • DFW-WildAid Wildlife Law Enforcement Program is ongoing.

  • The RGC reserves the cancelled concessions areas as protected areas or as Wildlife and Forest Resource Gene Conservation areas.

B. Fisheries Sector
B.1 Update of Legal Framework

With agreement from World Bank on loan for Agricultural Productivity Improvement Project (APIP) — Fisheries Component, the Department of Fisheries has selected an NGO Oxfam GB to help organize the process of fisheries law consultation in three regional levels namely, Tonle Sap area, Mekong area and marine area and a national level in Phnom Penh.

- Tonle Sap area represents Great Lake fisheries/Tonle Sap River. The consultation was made on the 5-6 June 2002 Kompong Thom province.

- Mekong area represents Mekong fisheries/Mekong River. The consultation was organized on 17-18 June 2002 Kompong Cham province.

-  Marine area represents Coastal fisheries. The consultation will be made on 2-3 July 2002 Kompot province.

Each consultation is arranged with the participation and involvement of relevant stakeholders. The objectives of the consultation are to understand and gather ideas and important recommendations for drafting the update fisheries law. Then, national workshop will be organized to improve the new draft fisheries law with inputs from legal expert before submitting to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries for discussion in late August or early September 2002. It is hoped that the new draft fisheries law will be submitted to Council Minister in 2003.

Draft Sub-degree on Community Fisheries, which was recently discussed and approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, has been submitted to the Cabinet Council for consideration and adoption soon.

Draft Sub-degree on Establishment of Fisheries Company as Public Enterprise was also discussed and approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries. The Sub-degree has been submitted to Cabinet Council to consider and approve.

Proclamation on defining of mollusk fishing gears was accepted and approved by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries.

Other Sub-degrees and proclamations that the Department of Fisheries has submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries are:

     -  Sub-degree on Fish Day
   -  Proclamation on Ban on Fishing of Aquatic Animals and Distinction Dish
   -  Proclamation on Kreng Chiem Fishing and Coral Reef Conservation in Marine Fishing Domain.
   -  Proclamation on Ban on the Use of Electrocuting and All Kinds of Fine-mesh Fishing Gears.
In addition, the Department of Fisheries is planning to prepare and formulate Proclamation on Dolphin Conservation.

B.2 Administrative Reform

With the help from technical expert of MRC/DANIDA and discussion within internal Department, management structure of the Department was redrafted and submitted to the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries to consider and approve.

The Department has requested staff who was absent for several months with notices and permission to be cleared from the government employee framework. Also, the Department has shifted senior staff from one office to another in order to ensure effectiveness of work.

The Department has proposed to promote staff who have higher education/degrees and are qualified and competent to be Deputy Chief of the Department, Chief and Vice-Chief of Offices. Also, the Department has offered medals to staff who are very active and hard working in their responsibilities.

Furthermore, the Department has made all-out efforts to seek for scholarships and fellowships for the development of human resources.

B.3 Establishment of Community Fisheries

Soon after the announcement by the Prime Minster in October 2002 to allocate some fishing domain for local fishing community, the Department of Fisheries had released fishing lots areas of 536,302 ha, which is 56.23 per cent of the total fishing lots areas, to local fishing communities to do family-scale fishing. Moreover, the Department of Fisheries established a new office — Community Fisheries Development Office in addition to management structure of the Department. The creation of CFDO is to be responsible for the process of Community Fisheries development and management throughout Cambodia.

The mission of the CFDO is to facilitate the establishment of Community Fisheries throughout Cambodia and support their functioning as management partners with the Department of Fisheries in the strive for efficient, sustainable and equitable use of the living aquatic resources.

Through cooperation and support with/from Provincial and Municipal Agricultural Departments, International organisations and NGOs such as, FAO, MRC, CAA, CARRE, STREAM - DFID, CCD, GTZ, Oxfam America, Oxfam GB, IDRC, WWF and so on, there are up to now 217 Community Fisheries —both freshwater and marine fisheries, have been established. The Department of Fisheries as well as CFDO is actively embarking on expanding the process of establishment in the remaining Community Fisheries in Kratie, Stung Treng, Ratanakiri, Kompong Cham, Kompong Thom, Siem Reap, Battambang, Poursat, Kompong Chhnang, Prey Veng, Phnom Penh, Takeo, Kandal, Kep municipality, Preah Sihanouk municipality, Koh Kong and Kompot. The implementation of Community Fisheries is so important that local fishermen can participate in the management, uses and conservation of fisheries resources of community fishing areas.

However, there are several constraints for the establishment and management of Community Fisheries. Such constraints are lake of experiences for Community Fisheries development and management, lack of human resources especially qualified and competent staff, and budgets for the operation of establishment and management of Community Fisheries. Therefore, both financial and technical supports from Donors, International organizations, NGOs and government are really needed and appreciated for the improvement of Community Fisheries development and management throughout Cambodia.

B.4 Construction of the Cambodian Inland Fisheries Development Research Institute

Up to present, the Mekong River Commission (MRC) joint with Department of Fisheries has already selected the Construction Company. The construction activities have been started since mid May. The fund for Institute construction is donated by DANIDA, Denmark, via the Mekong River Commission with the Cambodian government bilateral fund. The institute plays a very important role in Cambodian freshwater fisheries research such as, study on biodiversity and the status of socio­economic of fishermen especially food security. The result from research would let us know the impact and changing of ecology system through the Mekong River development. Therefore, the research will serve as the basics for recommendation for formulating and improving policy for sustainable fisheries management.

B.5 Fishing lot management and conservation

The Fisheries Department established 9 working groups to check and to review the fishing lot boundary after it was cut for the family fisheries. The outcome of the working groups will reduce the unclear fishing boundaries between the lot owners and the family fishermen. On the other hand, because the government budget is limited the Department of Fisheries has encouraged the development research fishing lot to do this job under the development fishing lot project.

For conservation it relay on the loan credit from World Bank. Up to now the 4 consultation meetings on the established new fish sanctuaries were made in Battambang, Kampong Thom and Pursat province. As a result, the people strongly supported these ideas in order to increase bloodstocks. The 3 new fish sanctuaries will be established - 2 are in Kampong Thom and the other one is in Battambang. In addition, Department of Fisheries with the support from JICA, Japan, produced short video scrip for disseminating people to be aware and participated in fisheries resources protection. In addition, the Department of Fisheries is cooperating with TVK and APSARA Television in order to produce short video humorous scrip and Cambodian traditional related-song (Chapey), which mean compelling and convincing audiences participate fisheries resource conservation and management in sustainable manner.

B.6 International Cooperation

The Department of Fisheries is keen on seeking cooperation with partners for mutual benefits and sustainable fisheries management. The Department so far has actively cooperated with various international organizations and NGOs such as, World Bank, ADB, MRC, FAO, JICA, ASEAN, SEAFDEC, WTO, AIT, SAO, PADEK, UNEPs and others (see No.3: Establishment of Community Fisheries).

Only 9 per cent of World Bank loan — Fisheries Component, have been implemented according the World Bank report. This is because of slow process of approving of the Department’s proposal by the World Bank.

FAO Siem Reap is actively executing Great Lake Natural Resources Management project. The project, which reaches the 3rd stage, has embarking on various development programs including establishment of Community Fisheries in Siem Reap province and promotion of aquaculture development.

The Department of Fisheries is working closely with ADB to discuss and apply for loan for Community Fisheries Development and Management around the Great Lake and capacity building of staff.

MRC/DANIDA has generously been supported the Department of Fisheries since 1994 in terms of technical experts, human resource development and financial aspects. However, recently, the Government of Denmark has deducted around 50 per cent of grants. This has affected some on-going projects in the Department of Fisheries.

The Department of Fisheries is cooperating with Japanese expert from JICA, who has his office in the Department, to develop aquaculture and fisheries development projects in the near future.

The Department of Fisheries is a member of the Ten ASEAN Fisheries Working Groups. The Department had its first privilege to host the 10th Meeting of ASEAN Sectoral Working Group on Fisheries, 28-30 May 2002, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Also, this was the first time that the Department participated in ASEAN Fisheries Sectoral Meeting and it was elected to be the Working Group Leader for 2002-2003.

The Department of Fisheries — Cambodia became a full member of SEAFDEC in March 2002.

AIT, a partner with Aquaculture Office of the Department, has actively involved in small-scale aquaculture and rice-field fisheries and the establishment of community fish sanctuary in Svay Rieng, Takeo and Kompong Speu provinces. AIT/Aquaculture Office also:


-  provides training on family-scale fish culture
-  organizes workshop on small-scale aquaculture practices
-  produce and disseminate simple fish culture techniques and rice field fisheries management in the forms of TV, booklets, newsletter and others.

SAO, a partner with Kandal Provincial Department of Agriculture, has undertaken integrated farming programs in which small-scale aquaculture development is one of the core activities. These activities are similar to AIT/Aquaculture Office. But SAO has supported the construction of Fisheries Research Station. Hence, SAO has carried out more research on local fish species and other exotic fish.

PADEK used to be a partner with Prey Veng Provincial Department of Agriculture, has embarked on various project developments among which aquaculture development was one of the core areas. PADEK supported the construction of Bati Fisheries Research Center.

B.7 Protection and combating illegal fishing

Protection and combating an illegal fishing is a very complicated and difficult task because it does need equipment, budget, human resources, times and voluntary participation from managers and stakeholders. However, Department of Fisheries do the best to cooperate with local authorities and relevant institutions to crack down Pangasius fry collection in every closed season and clear out the brush part in the Great Lake. Some illegal fishing gears were also cracked down: the electrocuting fishing gear, mosquito seine net, trawls (Manh and Yangkav), machinery pushing net (Chheb) etc. Furthermore, the Department of Fisheries combated illegal cutting of inundated forests and the illegal bamboo fences, which block the fish migration. In addition, the Department of Fisheries becomes a member of Interim Commission of Ministries to crack down anarchic fishing in the sea and to solve the conflicts in fishing lots with fishermen and issues on seaweed culture in Kompot province.

III. Follow-up actions

A. Forestry Sector

A. 1 Regulations

  • Continue discussions on drafting a wildlife law,
  • Continue convening the meeting on National Forestry Policy Statement and National Forestry Program,
  • Continue to establish regulations related to forestry sector.
A.2 Forest Concession Management
  • Strengthening the implementation of Order No. 2 and Declaration No. 1 of January 25, 1999 of the RGC on “Measures to Management of Forest and the Elimination of Anarchic Activities in the Forestry Sector” and Declaration No. 6 of September 27, 1999 on Measures to Eliminate Anarchic Activities in Land Grabbing;
  • Strengthening the implementation of Declaration No. 5721 of MAFF dated 13 December 2001 on the moratorium of forest concession logging activities;
  • Strengthening the implementation of Cambodian Forestry Code of Practice;
  • Strengthening the implementation of Forest Concession Management Sub-Decree;
  • Continue negotiation process with concessionaires on forest concession agreement;
  • Review and Evaluate Strategic Forest Concession Management Plans;
  • Start the implementation of Bar Code Use as soon as SGS and WB provide technical report follow-up with equipment support and training.
A.3 Forest Crime Monitoring and Reporting
  • Strengthening cooperation with neighboring countries to curb cross-border illegal logs trade;
  • Strengthening the implementation of Forest Crime Monitoring Project;
  • Continue collaboration with national and international organizations in order to monitor and trace illegal activities.
A.4 Forest Rehabilitation
  • Enhance reforestation on degraded forest land and distribution of seedling to people;
  • Conduct extension activities and encourage people participation in tree planting. Make sure they are aware of the importance of forest and wildlife, their benefits and effects from losing the forest;
  • Continue revising the draft of community forestry guidelines;
  • Continue revising the draft PROKAS of community forestry management plan to be consistent with the new forest law, and Community Forestry Sub-Decree;
  • Draft new PROKAS on Community Forestry contract and the Statute of Community Forestry to be consistent with the new Forestry Law and Community Forestry Sub-Decree;
  • Continue draft of technical planting manual picture book and tree maintenance for extension through local communities;
  • Continue collecting data on community forestry implementation through out the country;
  • Continue producing poster, leaflets, slogans, to contribute to the Arbor Day;
  • Continue community forestry program with donor agencies and relevant stakeholders under SMRP-MRC/GTZ, and CGFP/GTZ cooperation and support
  • Strengthening cooperation with international organizations FAO, JICA, GTZ, and DANIDA and national organizations in order to develop human resource and rehabilitation with full participation from relevant stakeholders;
  • Continue to establish natural forest seed and forest gene conservation program.
A.5 Forest Resource Conservation
  • Continue the discussion and adoption of wildlife law, wildlife and forest gene conservation areas;
  • Continue research study and develop the conservation and wildlife rescue center;
  • Conduct study on other areas potential for bio-diversity conservation;
  • Enforce the implementation of wildlife law and regulations, extension and educate people on endangered wildlife species and encourage them to protect them.

B. Fisheries Sector

B.1 Conservation


-   Existing fish sanctuaries will strictly be protected and conserved through patrol that illegal fishing would be prevented. Moreover, tree trunks or poles will be planted in the fish sanctuaries to create obstacle for illegal fishing.
-  In the future, coral reef areas will be protected and included for sanctuaries.

-  Continuation of study and research for appropriate areas for new fish sanctuaries —both freshwater and marine. The study and research will focus on types of habitats, socio-economic status of people who live around those areas.

B.2 Continuation of Update of Legal Framework and Law Enforcement

-  The Department of Fisheries is scheduled to make a proclamation on Fisheries Product Hygiene.
-  The Department of Fisheries will strengthen law enforcement both in freshwater and marine fisheries domains through extensive dissemination of Fisheries Law especially Community Fisheries to all people to ensure that they understand the law and Community Fisheries.
-  The Department of Fisheries will ensure that participation from Community Fisheries is necessary for sustainable management and conservation of fisheries resources.
-  Moreover, the Department of Fisheries is planning and undertaking the improvement of staff capacity and more effective inspection systems through staff training on fisheries law and the applications of controlling and monitoring technologies.

B.3 Preparation of long term strategy and Policy

The Department of Fisheries is in the process of preparing a longtime policy and strategy (2001-2002) that will establish a framework for fisheries management and development and linked with the development policy of the Royal government. At the moment DoF planned to finish consultation on the draft of Master Plan at the end of year 2002. Moreover, DoF also established development strategies that involved with Mekong River Basin.

B.4 Strengthening the fishing communities


-  Continue to organize the remaining communities in both marine and inland fisheries especially in the areas that have been released by the fishing lot reform.
-  Cooperate and coordinate with NGOs, and relevant institutions to strengthen fishing communities to enable them to manage themselves
-  Evaluate and assess the effectiveness of the fisheries reform and especially the fishing community performances.

B.5 International Cooperation

The DoF is seeking assistance from international and regional organizations including ASEAN, SEAFDEC, NACA, JICA and FAO to continue research especially related to the on going of community fisheries establishment.

IV. Constraints


-  National budget to serve in the monitoring, conservation and surveillance fisheries resources activities is still limited.
-  The existing materials and equipment for the monitoring, conservation and surveillance is too old and useless.
-  Inundated forest is suffering by cutting for rice farm.
-  Limitation of budget for establishment and improvement community fisheries.

V. Conclusion

In general, since the second mandate RGC under the wise leadership of Samdech HUN SEN, Prime Minister of the Royal Government of Cambodia, and under the full and active participation from all levels of government institutions relevant international communities, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries has successfully implemented with satisfactory results in curbing of all anarchic forest and fisheries activities. These achievements have drawn the attention from both national and international agencies on the best efforts of the second mandate of the RGC in its forest and fisheries policy reform process.

However, we still have a long way to proceed towards our anticipated goal, especially related to the monitoring, evaluation and management of Natural resources (forest/wildlife and fisheries resource) in Cambodia. Moreover, technical and financial assistance should be maintained to secure continued support to the forest and fisheries policy reform process toward sustainable natural resources management.


ANNEX 1: The Achievement  of Monitoring and Suppression Illegal Forest and Wildlife from 2001 to April 2002





1 - Forest and Wildlife Products:

-   Logs (Mixed Grades)
    -   Sawn timber (Mixed Grades)
    -   Node of Afzelia xylocarpa
    -   Core from Veneer
    -   Poles
    -   Sandalwood
    -   Yellow vine Powder
    -   Fuel Wood
    -   Charcoal
    -   Small size poles
    -   Rattan
    -   Mixed Wildlife 3,406 heads
    -   Other wildlife residuals




2- Timber and NTFPs Processing facilities:

-   Dismantled and destroyed equipments and seized
    -   operations of illegal saw-mills,
    -   Seized timber processing activities
    -   Dismantled and destroyed illegal yellow vine facilities
    -   Dismantled and destroyed charcoal kilns
    -   Dismantled and destroyed Sandalwood kilns
    -   Dismantled and destroyed Wildlife selling Stales







3- Equipment impounded:

-   Vehicles
    -   Tractors
    -   Tractor trailers
    -   Cards
    -   Boats
    -   Chain Saws
    -   Machineries (Sawing machines, Boat engines, Generators and
other machines
    -   Rail trailer
    -   Motorbikes
    -   Bicycles
    -   Others equipments







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